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Friday, October 16, 2020 | History

2 edition of Holmium target fragmentation induced by intermediate energy ℗£℗øC and ℗£œ́O ions found in the catalog.

Holmium target fragmentation induced by intermediate energy ℗£℗øC and ℗£œ́O ions

Robert Henry Kraus

Holmium target fragmentation induced by intermediate energy ℗£℗øC and ℗£œ́O ions

by Robert Henry Kraus

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  • 30 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Heavy ion collisions.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Robert Henry Kraus, Jr.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination[xvi], 222 leaves, bound :
    Number of Pages222
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14274478M

    Universality of the energy loss per number of nucleons lost in the collision (right panel). 3. Selected historical achievements The first records we have on nuclear fragmentation are from the 50s were photographic plates mounted in balloons registered the first fragmentation reactions induced by . Holmium occurs in gadolinite, monazite, and in other rare-earth minerals. It is commercially obtained from monazite, occurring in that mineral to the extent of about %. It has been isolated by the reduction of its anhydrous chloride or fluoride with calcium metal.

    CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): A stack of CR39 (C12H18O7)n nuclear track detectors with a Cu target was exposed to a A GeV lead ion beam at the CERN-SPS, in order to study the fragmentation properties of lead nuclei. Measurements of the total, break-up and pick-up charge-changing cross sections of ultrarelativistic Pb ions on Cu and CR Abstract. The following chapter introduces one of the key disciplines of organic mass spectrometry: the common fragmentation pathways of organic ions and the resulting methodology for the interpretation of electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. Of course, a single chapter cannot be comprehensive and thus, further reading may be desirable.

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is ort physics is governed by two types of interactions. Acylium ions, [RCO] + Ions with the positive charge on the carbon of a carbonyl group, C=O, are also relatively stable. This is fairly clearly seen in the mass spectra of ketones like pentanone. The base peak, at m/z=57, is due to the [CH 3 CH 2 CO] + ion. We've already discussed the fragmentation .


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Holmium target fragmentation induced by intermediate energy ℗£℗øC and ℗£œ́O ions by Robert Henry Kraus Download PDF EPUB FB2

Radiochemical measurements of target fragment isobaric yields, excitation functions, fission cross sections, fragment angular distributions, etc. are Cited by: 2. Investigating the target fragmentation region in proton and light-ion induced reactions on different target nuclei thus offers an ideal tool to learn - in a macroscopic description - about the energy dissipation from the primary interaction zone to the so called "spectator matter" or to learn - in a microscopic description - about the Cited by: 3.

URANIUM TARGET FRAGMENTATION BY INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH ENERGY 12c AND 20Ne IONS. Author(s): McGaughey, P.L. et al. Main Content Metrics Author & Article Info. Main Content. Download PDF to View View Larger.

Thumbnails Document Cited by: This is an experimental work in which, we focus on the target fragments production in the interactions of A GeV/c 24 Mg with emulsion nuclei. For the protons flying in the nuclear emulsion with a kinetic energy up to MeV, the energy–range relations exhibit a power law by: 4.

Target effect of fragmentation reactions at intermediate energy Sadao Momota, Y. Nojiri Kochi University of Technology M. Kanazawa, A.

Kitagawa, M. Suda, M. Sasaki, S. Sato National Institute of Radiological Sciences KJ 2nd Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Physics Divisions of the APS and The Physical Society of Japan.

2 J. Prasain 01/19/11 Contd. • Pseudomolecular ion: Ion originating from the analyte molecule by abstraction of a proton [M-H]- or addition of proton [M+H]+ • Tandem mass spectrometry (Cooks, ): MS/MS (McLafferty, ), tandem in space or time • Precursor ion/parent ion: Ions undergoing fragmentation.

• Product ion/daughter ion: Ions resulting from parent/precursor. Fragmentations Induced by Ion-Atom Reactions M. Sablier, H. Mestdagh, L. Poisson, N. Tqmarie, and C.

Roland0 hole Normale Sqxkkure, D+rtement de Chimie, URA duProcessus dctivation Molkulaire, Paris, France Fragmentation of electron-impact-generated organic molecular cations, submitted to low- energy collisions with hydrogen in a MS/MS/MS multiquadrupole mass. We consider first the molecular fragmentation of water induced by keV Xe 22+ impact (Z P /v = ) and compare our results to the experimental data of Pešic et al.

The ions in brackets (OH +, O +, O 2+ and O 3+) indicate those fragments that are unobserved in the experiment. Nuclear reactions ofHo induced by GeV15N or GeV14N ions and those ofPr induced by GeV or GeV40Ar ions have been studied by off-line γ-ray spectrometry.

Mass distributions of the products were confirmed to reveal a limiting characteristics at projectile energies beyond 2 GeV. Longitudinal momentum transfer was measured with a thick-target-thick-catcher technique. The fragmentation efficiency on Bego artificial stones during lithotripsy and the propulsive effect (via video tracking) was investigated for a variety of laser settings.

A variation of the laser settings (pulse energy, pulse duration, repetition rate) altered the total application time required for stone fragmentation, the stone break up time, and the propulsion. Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element.

Holmium was discovered through isolation by Swedish chemist Per Theodor Cleve and independently by Jacques-Louis Soret and Marc Delafontaine who observed it spectroscopically in Its oxide was first isolated from rare-earth ores by Cleve in In mass spectrometry, fragmentation is the dissociation of energetically unstable molecular ions formed from passing the molecules in the ionization chamber of a mass spectrometer.

The fragments of a molecule cause a unique pattern in the mass reactions are well documented over the decades and fragmentation pattern is useful to determine the molar weight and structural.

A target containing 4 mg of deuterium and tritium fuel is demonstrated to be thus imploded in 5 nsec. A driving pressure of Mbars yields an energy output of MJ. This result can be obtained with an initial cluster kinetic energy smaller than 20 keV/amu. Pulse energy was the key variable that drove fragmentation efficiency.

Attention must be paid to prevent the formation of time‐consuming bulky debris and adapt the lithotripter settings to one's needs.

As fibre diameter did not affect fragmentation efficiency, small fibres are preferable due to better scope irrigation and manoeuvrability. ELECTRON-AND PHOTON-INDUCED FRAGMENTATION OF MOLECULAR IONS Annette Svendsen Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Aarhus, Denmark PhD Thesis August Craters remained symmetrical and volume increased as pulse energy increased.

Pressure transients remained modest at less than 30 bars even at J pulse energy. CONCLUSIONS: Holmium:YAG lithotripsy varies as pulse energy settings vary. At low pulse energy ( J) less fragmentation and retropulsion occur and small fragments are produced.

Image showing periodicity of valence s-orbital radius for the chemical elements as size-coded balls on a periodic table grid. References. The R max values for neutral gaseous element valence orbitals are abstracted from reference J.B.

Mann, Atomic Structure Calculations e-Fock wave functions and radial expectation values: hydrogen to lawrencium, LA, Los Alamos Scientific. The origin of fragmentation patterns. The formation of molecular ions. When the vaporised organic sample passes into the ionisation chamber of a mass spectrometer, it is bombarded by a stream of electrons.

These electrons have a high enough energy to knock an electron off an organic molecule to form a positive ion. Absolute cross-sections for electron impact induced fragmentation, fragmentation-single-ionisation and fragmentation-double-ionisation were measured for the fullerene ions C+0 and C+ For the fullerene ion C2+ 60, fragmentation-single-ionisation was measured with a loss of n C2 molecules (n = 1, 2, 3).

The cross-sections were determined from the respective threshold up to an electron energy. Abstract. The ion-induced fragmentation of molecules is a process of fundamental importance in various areas of science ranging from the physics and chemistry of upper planetary atmospheres 1 to the understanding of radiation damage to biological tissue.

In contrast to studies of the molecular break-up by electron bombardment 2 the ion-impact induced fragmentation has yet received. Fragment ions are produced by decomposition of a molecular ion (fragmentation) in the ion source.

There exist many kinds of fragment ions, whose distribution reflects the chemical structure of a compound, according to various ways of fragmentation.

The fragment ions have smaller masses than the molecular ion.Ion-induced ionization and fragmentation of organic molecules Article (PDF Available) in Journal of Physics Conference Series (3) September with 17 Reads How we measure 'reads'.detectors.

Investigating the target fragmentation region in proton and light-ion induced reactions on different target nuclei thus offers an ideal tool to learn - in a macroscopic description - about the energy dissipation from the primary interaction zone to the so called "spectator matter" or to learn.